Eureka – A Snowy Plover Story

Western Snowy Plover Female Incubating Eggs

Western Snowy Plover Female Incubating Eggs

The amazing story of Eureka, the Western Snowy Plover, began with an unexpected event on Memorial Day weekend of 2017. I do quarterly surveys for Western Snowy Plover (Charadrius nivosus nivosus), an endangered species along the west coast of North America. We survey a 2.2-mile stretch of Huntington State Beach in Orange County, CA. With my teammates, Doug and Chuck, we’ve surveyed this beach every January, March, May and September for four years. Huntington State Beach is a crucial roosting and feeding area for Western Snowy Plover, and we see some on every January, March or September survey. Surveying takes three of us because the beach is quite deep at about 500 feet from the parking lot to the water’s edge. Our team walks in parallel, zig-zagging down the beach to cover everything. Snowy Plovers, with their pale, wet-sand plumage, can be hard to spot. They make it harder by crouching down in little divots on the beach, hiding until danger is right on top of them. May is the boring survey because it’s the only time we don’t see the plovers on our beach. By May, the plovers have migrated to their breeding areas elsewhere. Continue reading

Anza-Borrego Super-Bloom

The wildflowers north of Borrego Springs

The wildflowers north of Borrego Springs

Just when you think you are beginning to understand things a little, along comes an event that puts you in your place! The rainfall here on the west coast of the United States in 2017 has been a bit odd – very welcome, to be sure, but a bit odd. We have exceeded expected rainfall through this winter and spring by so much that in the northern Pacific states from Washington through Oregon and down into northern California, experts are declaring an official end to a drought that has lasted about a decade. Reservoirs and lakes in that region are now refilled to capacity. Here in southern California, the boon of rain hasn’t erased that long drought as completely, but it still had staggering effects locally. One of the factors that makes the rain so odd is that it occurred completely outside the Pacific oscillation cycle, governed by the El Nino and La Nina oscillations. These rains at Anza-Borrego State Park produced a huge wildflower super-bloom, to the benefit of White-lined Sphinx moths and their predators. Continue reading

Chiapas Owls

Chiapas owls - Unspotted-Saw-whet-Owl

The Unspotted Saw-whet Owl is a highly sought after species that inhabits the cloud forest mostly above 8,000 feet in elevation. In this photo, light dew is visible on the owls head from the mist in the forest.

After 15 years, I finally got brave enough to go back in search of the Chiapas Owls. Chiapas is the southernmost state of Mexico that borders Guatemala. This was pretty much a mandatory destination to complete our sister website. There is no other state in Mexico with as many owl species as Chiapas. This area is also crucial to our current understanding of owl taxonomy. New divisions and more accurate classification of the owls are slowly becoming known and being clarified by science.

Chiapas is spectacular for wildlife and has an extraordinary history, but suffers from terrible pollution and horrific habitat destruction. While the natural wealth is immense, the population is poor, and traveling there can be dangerous. Having done this before, my plan was to mitigate risk, so I invited a friend and hired a guide. We documented nine species of owls in nine nights (video, recording, photograph, etc.) along with over a hundred eighty species of birds and mammals in the daytime. I will cover more of this in an upcoming article. Continue reading

A Laysan Albatross in Orange County

The Sea and Sage Audubon chapter winter pelagic trip ran recently on a February day following strong winds and storms from the southwest. A fairly large swell kept people on their toes for most of the day (going airborne while on a boat is bad!!). It was by turns rainy, windy, drizzly and sunny. For those who braved the weather, however, the returns from this trip were spectacular! Every pelagic trip is begun with a sense of hope: maybe you’ll see something rare, like an albatross. But realistically, you never really expect one to show up. As it turned out, they weren’t long in coming, and in this case it was an unprecedented one.

Laysan Albatross

Laysan Albatross in Orange County

A Laysan Albatross soars past the boat at close quarters.

The boat left Dana Point harbor and headed straight out into the California Channel. Four miles out, a call of “Albatross!” went up from the back of the boat. The usual stampede ensued! The bird in question proved to be an adult Laysan Albatross, Phoebastria immutabilis, a bird previously unrecorded for the county. This particular individual was a handsome adult bird, showing the distinctive dark wings paired with an all-white body, nape and crown, the grayish shadow to the auricular feathers, and a large pinkish bill with a pale bluish tip. The bird made several passes by the boat, found nothing that interested it, and sailed off, leaving us all wishing for more. Alas, it was not to be as this individual was not sighted again for the entire trip. But it sure woke everyone up! Continue reading

Coastal Saltmarsh Sparrows


Nelson's Sparrows at Seal Beach National Wildlife Refuge

Nelson’s Sparrow, driven into view by high tides.

The brackish and salt marshes of California are an important and globally threatened ecosystem. At this point, a century plus of “civilization” has filled, polluted or otherwise destroyed over 95% of the historical expanse of California’s coastal salt marshes. These estuaries and marshes are incredibly important. Biologically speaking, they are some of the most productive acres of habitat anywhere, hosting tremendous species diversity, and acting as vital nursery grounds for many ocean-dwelling species. They serve as feeding and breeding resources for a variety of species, some endangered like the California Least Tern, the Western Snowy Plover and the Light-footed population of Ridgway’s Rail. They also provide wintering or year-round habitat for a number of interesting bird species. The focus of this article is three such species: Belding’s (Savannah) Sparrow, Large-billed Savannah Sparrow and Nelson’s Sparrows. Continue reading

North American Chickadees

Black-capped Chickadee, Kenai Peninsula, Alaska

This Black-capped Chickadee was a regular visitor to the yard of the guest house where we were staying.

There are seven regularly occurring chickadees in North America: Carolina, Black-capped, Boreal, Mountain, Chestnut-backed, Mexican and Gray-headed Chickadee (also called Siberian Tit). Our chickadees are fairly closely related to each other, all belonging to the same genus (Poecile). Chickadees are members of the family Paridae, which also includes the titmice. In Europe, many of what we would call chickadees are referred to as “tits”, and these include some of the largest and most colorful members of the family. Chickadees are small birds with big personalities. They are named for their songs, which sound as though they are saying “chick-a-dee-dee-dee”, or variations on that theme. North American chickadees are small birds (the largest are just 5.5 inches long) with proportionately large, round heads, variable amounts of white in prominent cheek patches, and always a black throat. All of our chickadees have short, but sharp bills equally well-adapted for hammering open seeds or grabbing bugs out of crevices. Chickadees are essentially gregarious, flocking birds except for a brief period of nesting and fledging young each year, when flocks break apart and birds set up breeding territories. Chickadees are frequent visitors at bird feeders across the continent, and are some of North America’s most beloved birds. Continue reading

The Black Skimmer

Sub-adult Black Skimmer close-up

A sub-adult Black Skimmer close-up over a pond at San Joaquin Wildlife Sanctuary in Irvine, California

The Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger) is a  wonderfully weird bird with a very broad distribution across the southern half of North America, where it is found almost exclusively at coastal locations or within ~20 miles of the shore. They are primarily year-round residents there, though some migrate to winter on shores of the Gulf of Mexico, some going as far south as the western Yucatan. A large population of Black Skimmers resides year-round in a range roughly corresponding to the entire Amazon drainage basin. Black Skimmers are easily recognizable by their long, pointed wings, black above and grayish under the flight feathers, grading to white below. Black Skimmers have clean white underparts, throat, neck collar (non-breeding only) and around the bill. Their feet and the inner bills are bright orange; the tips of both mandibles are black. Juvenile Black Skimmers are more brownish-gray on the upper surface, and have relatively dull orange feet and inner bill parts. At birth, juvenile skimmers bill parts are of equal length, but by the time they fledge in four weeks, the lower mandible is fully a centimeter longer than the upper one. Continue reading

Elegant Terns


Elegant Tern in flight

Terns at Bolsa Chica

Elegant Terns galore! In late spring and early summer, one of the birding spectacles in Southern California is the colony of terns at Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve in Huntington Beach, Orange County. The pretty estuary (as its name translates from Spanish) has been host to twelve species of terns, with Common, Royal, Caspian, Gull-billed, Black, breeding Black Skimmer, Forster’s, Least, and Elegant, and rarities Sooty, Sandwich, and Bridled. Continue reading

Pacific Ocean Puffins

A Horned Puffin getting airborne, Kachemak Bay, Alaska

A Horned Puffin getting airborne, Kachemak Bay, Alaska

There are three species of puffins in the world, all confined to the northern hemisphere: Atlantic Puffin, Horned Puffin and Tufted Puffin. Currently, allpuffins all belong to the genus Fratercula, which is Latin for “little brother”. It is worth noting that a fourth species, Rhinoceros Auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), is very closely related to the puffins and has at times, been included in the genus, Fratercula. Puffins are alcids – truly pelagic seabirds that feed by diving from the ocean surface and capturing small fish and zooplankton. Atlantic Puffins (Fratercula arctica) breed on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean in large colonies, but the Tufted (Fratercula cirrhata) and Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) are unique to the northern Pacific Ocean on both sides of the Bering Strait. These two species are the main focus of this article, though information is presented about Atlantic Puffins too. Rhinoceros Auklet is also confined to the Pacific Ocean, but has more widespread breeding and wintering ranges. Continue reading

Deep Creek Dragonflies

Gray Sanddragon lifting off

Gray Sanddragon lifting off

When summer hits and the doldrums set in for a few weeks after the migrants have left to breed up north, many of us turn to chasing butterflies and odonata (dragonflies and damselflies, or “odes”). Odes are particularly fun because they make such great photography subjects with their wild colors, spiky appendages and weird shapes. Even the names are awesome! The only bird names that can even compete are mostly hummingbirds… Anyway, recent reports of some first county record dragonflies in San Bernardino County took us up to Deep Creek, a unit in the San Bernardino National Forest, administered to by the United States Forest Service. Tom Benson recently discovered a population of Bison Snaketails and Western River Cruisers on this beautiful and relatively pristine creek near Lake Arrowhead in the San Bernardino Mountains. The previous southern-most records for Bison Snaketail were from Tulare County, so this find significantly extends the known range of that species. Likewise, the southern-most known range of Western River Cruiser was up in Kern and Inyo counties. These two species belong to the clubtail family, which, with their oddly bulging tail segments and brilliant colors, includes some of the most colorful, large dragonflies in California. Continue reading